The Glove Tricorder is a prototype device designed to assist physicians in performing medical exams.
(Med Sensation's Glove Tricorder)
This glove will eventually allow patients to diagnosis their own illnesses. The glove interface allows for data from the physical exam to be a component of automated diagnosis, which at times can mean the difference between a patient living and dying. Our Glove Tricorder includes many sensors (accelerometers, temperature, force, sound, and vibration) and a data protocol that allows the data to be transferred wirelessly. Soon everyone will have a glove that can be used to assess a sports injury or can be used to do self-clinical breast exams. In the future we will be able to augment a human's ability to diagnosis illness, by adding sensors such as ultrasound probes that will be able to integrate the data and provide real-time assessment of heart valve abnormalities, abdominal pain, and much more without having to go to medical facility.
Unfortunately, Technovelgy readers, I must report that I don't know of anything similar to this idea in science fiction (*see below!). By way of apology, I offer links to the impact-sensitive karatand from John Brunner's Stand on Zanzibar (1968), the spray-on surgical gloves from Richard Morgan's Altered Carbon (2003), the self-cleaning fabricule gloves from Neal Stephenson's The Diamond Age (1995) and finally the the poison-bearing invisible gloves from Philip K. Dick's Lies, Inc. (1964).
Update 29-Aug-2012: What about the DiaGlove - the diagnostic glove - from the series Earth 2? The series aired in 1994-95. Thanks to Dewtey for pointing this out!